Glossary of Terms

A quick and easy reference to the many terms used within the industry.

To view the terms and their descriptions, simply click on the letters below: -


Abrasive wear - Erosion of a surface due to excessive particles in the fluid stream, commonly occurs in pumps, jigs and fixtures as well as the cutting tools.

AMRC with Boeing - Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre with Boeing is part of the Catapult.

Alloy element - the components that are used to make an alloy.

Aluminium oxide - the most common industrial mineral used in grinding wheels.

ATC - Automatic Tool Changer.


Boring - Removal of material from the inside diameter. In boring the work-piece rotates and the tool is held.

Brittle Wear - Wear that effects the brittle particles along the cutting edge.

Built up edge - generally occurs during turning. It is a condition wear some of the work-piece material welds to the cutting edge.


Centre drill - used to spot drill a hole.

Centreless grinding - Parts sit on a work rest rather than on centres for faster and easier insertion and removal of the work-piece. Primarily used in high production applications, centerless grinding has various forms that include thru feed and plunge grinding.

CFRP - Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic.

Concentricity - Used to describe shafts or holes with the same centre.

Consumable media - Paper roll or filter bags for traditional filtration systems.

Contour - A machining operation that follows the geometry of the work-piece.

Coolant - A traditional name for metalworking or metal removal fluids used in machining and grinding processes. Once thought as primarily a means to cool a work piece to prevent burn, research showed that fluids have other functions such as lubrication, which may be equally or more important than cooling.

Creep Feed Grinding - A technique of plunge grinding with a specially designed machine involving very slow table travel speeds. The total amount of stock to be removed from the work piece is accomplished in one or two passes instead of numerous lighter passes with conventional surface grinding. See also HEDG.

Cylindricity - is the roundness of a body.


Depth of cut - is used to describe the thickness of the work piece material that is to be removed by the cutting tool when machining.

Disc grinding - Grinding machines and process using the face of a large wheel to produce flat and parallel surfaces. Single wheel machines usually have vertical spindle. Doubles disc grinding passes parts between two independent grinding wheels.

Dissolve - When the alloying element is in solution in the base metal in either liquid or solid state.


EDM - Electric Discharge Machining.

Eutectic - A point at which 2 different crystals precipitate into one form. The point at which it forms simultaneously is the eutectic point.

EP - Extreme Pressure additive used to add stability to a lubricant film when to surfaces contact.


Filtration - The act or process of filtering, especially the process of passing a liquid or gas, such as air, through a filter in order to remove solid particles.

Fine Grinding - Machine tools and a grinding process for precision grinding of flat and parallel surfaces. A relatively recent development, fined grinding grew out of lapping technology and free abrasive machining with the replacement of loose abrasive and lapping compounds with a bonded grinding wheel. Like disc grinding cutting takes place on the face of either one or two grinding wheels. The grinding wheels may be monolithic bonded wheel or wheel composed of small pellets of bonded super abrasive grains.


Grindability - Represents how easy or difficult it is to grind a material.

Grinding Ratio - is calculated by dividing the cubic centimetres of material removed by the cubic centimetres of wear of the grinding wheel. The large the ratio the easier it is to grind.

Grinding - Machining with removing material from a work piece by using abrasive minerals in a wheel, stone, belt, paste, sheet, compound, slurry, or other abrasive product.

Guide bush - a bush used to support a drill when deep hole drilling.


HEDG - High Efficiency Deep Grinding. Like creep feed grinding this process removes material from a work piece in one or two passes using very slow table in feed rates. HEDG differs by using considerably higher wheel speeds that bring enhancements in wheel life and process efficiency.

Hole Making - Formally known as ‘drilling’. Removal of material to create a circular hole in the work piece. When drilling the work piece is held steady and the tool rotates.

HPM - High Performance Machining.


ID Grinding - A grinding process and machinery for grinding the inner diameter of holes or profiles using a very small, high speed grinding wheel. A specialised grinding technology requiring special grinding wheels and machine tools.


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Milling - A mechanical chip removal machining process performed with a rotary tool.

MRF - Metal Removal Fluid. See coolant.

MWF - Metalworking Fluid. See coolant.


Near net shape - describes a component that is preformed to near finished size and requires further minimal material removal to achieve finished dimension.


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PPM - Parts Per Million.

Plunge Grinding - Grinding of cylindrical parts in cylindrical or centerless grinding where the in feed of the grinding wheel is limited to radial movements and no cross slide movement.


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Recovery at Source - A system in which certain materials removed from the waste stream are directed toward a specific recovery system such as recycling or waste to energy incineration.

Recycling - Process by which materials that would otherwise become waste are collected, separated or processed and returned to the economic mainstream to be reused in the form of raw materials or finished goods.

Reprocessing - Operation of reforming reclaimed materials into new products.

Reuse - To use a product repeatedly in the same form.

Revert Management - To recover process and reuse scrap metal products including metal chips, grinding fines and sludge, casting gates, bar ends.


Secondary wear - occurs on the secondary relief face of a tool.

Sludge - A thick, soft, oily ‘mud’ or a similar viscous mixture of liquid and solid components, especially the product of an industrial or refining process.

Sump - The fluid holding tank typically found underneath a machine tool.

Sump Life - The amount of time before a metalworking fluid is emptied from a Sump before it is ‘dug out’ to remove contamination.

Surface Grinding - A process and machine tool to grind flat and/or square surfaces. The component is mounted to a table that sweeps back and forth in a pendulum-like motion.

Swarf - also known as chips or curlys are pieces of metal that are the debris or waste resulting from machining or similar subtractive (material-removing) manufacturing processes.


Tramp Oil - Hydraulic oil, slideway oil, greases or rust preventatives which contaminate the metalworking fluid.

Turning - Generally the work piece is rotated and the tool is fixed. Turning usually produces a circular section though modern lathes can produce eccentric shapes...

Twist Drill - A rotating cutting tool, used for cutting holes that consists of an essentially conical point, relieved and fluted to form cutting lips, and spiral flutes which direct the chips away from the lips and toward ejection from the hole. Called also a drill bit or drill.


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VIPER - Very Impressive Performance Extreme Removal


Waste Recycling - A method of recovering waste as resources. It includes the reuse of wastes or the collection and treatment of a waste product for use as a replacement of all or part of the raw material in the manufacturing process.

Waste Reduction - The prevention of waste at its source.


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